Massachusetts Divorce Resources
From the Law Office of Robert P. Murray
©2004 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Robert P. Murray, Esquire
DNA Parentage Testing
Definitive Answers to Difficult Questions
DNA DIAGNOSTICS CENTER
Accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB)
Web Site: www.dnacenter.com
As a nationally recognized provider of DNA Parentage Testing, DNA Diagnostics Center is an industry leader. It is fully accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB). It uses the highest form of DNA typing technology to deliver the most accurate results possible for its clients. It offers excellent quality, service and convenience for clients world-wide. Its professional staff has been working with DNA technology since 1982 and has specialized in DNA Parentage Testing since 1990.
This page is proved purely for informational purposes and as a courtesy to
DNA Diagnostics Center
Law Office of Robert P. Murray
What is DNA Parentage Testing?
DNA Parentage Testing is the most reliable and powerful method of proving or disproving parentage — for legal, personal, or medical reasons. It conclusively answers difficult questions, resolves disputes, helps streamline court proceedings and facilitates pretrial settlements.
Testing is based on a highly accurate analysis of the genetic profiles of the mother, child and alleged father. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the unique genetic blueprint within each nucleated cell of a person's body, determines the genetic pattern and individual characteristics. A child inherits half of this DNA pattern from the mother and half from the father. If the mother's and child's patterns are known, the father's can be deduced with virtual certainty.
Who can use DNA Parentage Testing?
- Women seeking child support payments from a man who denies he is the child's father
- A man attempting to win custody or visitation
- Adoptive children seeking their biological families
- Persons seeking to identify one parent when the other parent is absent is absent or deceased, or desires to identify other lost relatives
- Someone wanting to determine grandparentage, inheritance rights or whether twins are identical or fraternal
- A person seeking entry into the United States on the grounds that s/he is a blood relative of a U.S. citizen, or someone seeking to establish Native American tribal rights
- Those who have received inconclusive results from other methods or who wants a second opinion
What are some of the benefits of testing?
Among the many benefits of obtaining DNA Parentage Testing results are relieving emotional stress from doubts, as well as saving legal and judicial expenses. Both parents can also share child-rearing responsibilities. The child(ren) may be able to establish a relationship with both parents that helps create a stronger sense of identity, and can be alerted to inheritable diseases.
How is DNA Parentage Testing different from traditional testing?
Traditional blood tests involve the study of genetic traits or "markers" such as blood types (A, B, AB or O) and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA). A battery of tests is necessary, requiring a relatively large blood sample. This is often a problem with newborns and young infants. DNA-based testing, which studies the genetic material directly, is 10 to 100 times more precise than traditional testing and requires only a few drops of blood or a swab of the mouth.
How accurate is DNA testing?
DNA Diagnostics Center routinely provides results with a probability of 99.9% or greater for inclusion and 100% for exclusion. DNA Parentage Testing is recognized and accepted by the United States court system and the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB).
When can testing be done?
There are no age restrictions, because DNA makeup is set at conception. Testing can be performed before a child is born and newborns can be safely tested at delivery using umbilical cord blood. In fact, samples can be taken from persons of any age, even post-mortem. Only one half of a teaspoon of blood or a cheek swab is required.
Can DNA Parentage Testing be done if the alleged father or mother is deceased or missing?
DNA technology is so powerful that the genetic patterns of a deceased father can be reconstructed from grandparents, siblings or other children to determine paternity. It can also provide answers when the mother is absent.
What is the process for getting the test done?
A staff of professionals can help you decide during a toll-free phone call if DNA Parentage Testing can help you. They make the process easy by answering your questions, and arranging all aspects of the process. Their network of specimen collection sites throughout the United States enables them to schedule an appointment that is convenient to you.
To ensure strict chain-of-custody, all parties are positively identified, photographed and fingerprinted. They then store all samples in a secured facility to ensure accurate, legally defensible results. A notarized report of the results will be sent to the client(s), the attorney(s) and designated agency representative(s). All client relationships and results are strictly confidential; no results are given over the telephone. Results are generally available within 15 working days after DNA Paternity Testing receives the samples. Express services are also available.
How does the testing process work?
DNA is extracted from a few drops of blood, cheek cells, or cultured cells. Enzymes are used to cut the DNA sample into fragments, which are then placed into a gel matrix. An electric current drives the fragments across the gel — the smallest fragments move the farthest, while the largest move the least distance. The separated DNA fragments are transferred to a nylon membrane, which is exposed to a labeled DNA probe, a short piece of customized DNA that recognizes and binds to a unique segment of the tested person's DNA. This nylon membrane is placed against a film, which when developed, reveals black bands where the probes bound to the DNA. The visible band pattern of the child is unique — half matches the mother and half matches the father.
This process is repeated several times, with each probe identifying a different area in the DNA and producing a distinct pattern. Using several probes, greater than 99.9% certainty about parentage can be achieved.
What about cost?
Partial Fee Schedule as of January 1, 1998, as published by DNA Parentage Testing:
Standard Case (mother, child & one alleged father) — $420.00
Motherless Case (child & one alleged father) — $420.00
Additional Tested Individual — $195.00
Twin Zygosity — $400.00
Genetic Reconstruction of Deceased/Missing Person — available on request
Umbilical Cord Blood Sample — $420.00
Buccal (Cheek) Swabs-Saliva Sample (per sample) — no charge
Grandparentage Testing (both paternal grandparents) — $695.00
Prenatal Amniotic Fluid or CVS Sample — $695.00
Post Mortem Blood or Tissue Sample — additional $200.00
For further pricing matters, contact: